In order to provide information on key questions linked to the implementation of Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRMs), the following Synthesis Documents (SD) have been developed.

They rely on the detailed delineation of what NWRMs cover as described in the synthesis document SD n°1: Introducing NWRM, and on structured benefit tables.  Evidences included into these synthesis documents come from the case studies collected within this project (see the catalogue of case studies) and from the individual NWRMs factsheets which are available on the page dedicated to each measure (see catalogue of measures). This information has been complemented with a comprehensive literature review.


Synthesis document n°1

What are NWRM, where do they come from, what make them a distinct set of measures and how they relate to structural measures ?

Synthesis document n°2

What are NWRM main biophysical impacts, how basin characteristics can influence them and how can they contribute to achieve EU policy objective?

Synthesis document n°3

What are the methods and tools used to asses NWRM effectiveness?


Synthesis document n°4

What are NWRM socio-economic benefits and how are they identified, classified and influenced by local circumstances?

Synthesis document n°5

What are the capital, operation and maintenance costs of NWRM, their opportunity costs and their forgone benefits?

Synthesis document n°6

What is the cost-effectiveness of NWRM compared to traditional / structural measures, and with regards to their multiple objectives?

Synthesis document n°7

What are the methods used to assess the economic aspects of NWRM and to assess NWRM benefits if they can be valued or measured?


Synthesis document n°8

What are the “windows for opportunities” for NWRM?

Synthesis document n°9

What are the barrier and success factors for the implementation of NWRM?

Synthesis document n°10

What is the policy coordination linked to NWRM and how can they be integrated to different EU directives?

Synthesis document n°11

What are the financing sources for NWRM?